Overlap in Social Risk Factors

Measurement Period: April 2014 - June 2017

There are challenges to reliably identifying populations with social risk factors. Research has shown that various markers of populations with social risk factors capture different aspects of patient disparities. It is often assumed, however, that these markers consistently identify the same group of hospitals. This data visualization examines the overlap in the identification and geographic location of hospitals using seven different social risk factors.

To begin exploring the data:

  1. Select a measure from the drop down menu

  2. Select social risk factors from the drop down menu

The map displays all hospitals captured by the selected characteristics. The colored boxes display the overlap of hospitals captured by the selected characteristics.

Choose a condition/procedure

Choose a condition/procedure

Choose a Condition:

Then, choose an outcome:

Add a Sociodemographic Characteristic(s)

Add a Characterstic

Current Characteristics:

  • {{characteristic.name}}

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Table View

Sociodemographic Characteristic(s)
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Hospitals with the highest proportion of patients with the following characteristic: {{selectedVariables[0].name}}
{{filteredHospitals[0].length}} out of {{ allHospitals.length }} hospitals
{{variable.name}}
Checkmark
--
Number of Hospitals that Meet Criteria:
{{variable.length}}

Notes

Hospitals were identified as caring for disproportionate volume of patients with social risk factors if they were in the highest decile for that definition.

The measurement period for all condition-specific mortality, readmission, and payment measures, and the hip/knee readmission measure went from July 2014 through June 2017. The hip/knee complication measure uses data from April 2014 through March 2017. The hospital-wide readmission measure uses data from July 2016 through June 2017.

Social risk factors were derived from the American Community Survey (ACS) 5-year estimate: 2008 - 2012, the American Hospital Association (AHA) Survey 2016, and the Denominator File 2016.

Only hospitals with at least 25 qualifying hospitalizations for a given measure are included in the visualization.

Table 1. Key Definitions

Social risk factor

Definition

Below U.S. poverty line

  • Patients residing in zip codes where more than 29.6% of the residents are below the United States (U.S.) poverty line.

Educational attainment below high school

  • Patients from zip codes where more than 18.1% of residents aged 25 or older have less than a 12th grade education.

Unemployed

  • Patients from zip codes where more than 11.3% of the residents aged 16 years or older are in the labor force who are unemployed and actively seeking work.

Crowded households

  • Patients from zip codes where more than 3.1% of residents live in households containing one or more person per room.

African-American

  • Patients who self-identify as African-American

Medicaid

  • Patients who receive Medicaid coverage

AHRQ Index of SES score

  • Patients from zip codes with an Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality (AHRQ) socioeconomic status (SES) index score below 32.3

Methodology Sources

Hospital-Wide Readmission Measure Methodology: Jaymie Simoes, Jacqueline N. Grady, Jo DeBuhr, et al. 2018 All-Cause Hospital-Wide Measure Updates and Specifications Report: Hospital-Level 30-Day Risk-Standardized Readmission Measure – Version 6.0. https://www.qualitynet.org/dcs/ContentServer?c=Page&pagename=QnetPublic%2FPage%2FQnetTier4&cid=1219069855841. Available as of April 4, 2018.

AMI, Heart Failure, Pneumonia, COPD, and Stroke Readmission Measures Methodology: Jaymie Simoes, Jacqueline N. Grady, Jo DeBuhr, et al. 2018 Condition-Specific Measures Updates and Specifications Report Hospital-Level 30-Day Risk-Standardized Readmission Measures: Acute Myocardial Infarction – Version 10.0 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease – Version 6.0 Heart Failure – Version 10.0 Pneumonia – Version 10.0 Stroke – Version 6.0. https://www.qualitynet.org/dcs/ContentServer?c=Page&pagename=QnetPublic%2FPage%2FQnetTier4&cid=1219069855841. Available as of April 4, 2018.

CABG and Hip/Knee Arthroplasty Readmission Measures Methodology: Jaymie Simoes, Jacqueline N. Grady, Jo DeBuhr, et al. 2018 Procedure-Specific Measures Updates and Specifications Report Hospital-Level 30-Day Risk-Standardized Readmission Measures: Isolated Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery – Version 4.0 Elective Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) and/or Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) – Version 6.0. https://www.qualitynet.org/dcs/ContentServer?c=Page&pagename=QnetPublic%2FPage%2FQnetTier4&cid=1219069855841. Available as of April 4, 2018.

AMI, Heart Failure, Pneumonia, COPD, and Stroke Mortality Measures Methodology: Jaymie Simoes, Jacqueline N. Grady, Jo DeBuhr, et al. 2018 Condition-Specific Measures Updates and Specifications Report Hospital-Level 30-Day Risk-Standardized Mortality Measures: Acute Myocardial Infarction – Version 11.0 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease – Version 6.0 Heart Failure – Version 11.0 Pneumonia – Version 11.0 Stroke – Version 6.0. https://www.qualitynet.org/dcs/ContentServer?c=Page&pagename=QnetPublic%2FPage%2FQnetTier4&cid=1163010421830. Available as of April 4, 2018.

CABG Mortality Measure Methodology: Jaymie Simoes, Jacqueline N. Grady, Jo DeBuhr, et al. 2018 Procedure-Specific Measure Updates and Specifications Report Hospital-Level 30-Day Risk-Standardized Mortality Measure: Isolated Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery – Version 4.0. https://www.qualitynet.org/dcs/ContentServer?c=Page&pagename=QnetPublic%2FPage%2FQnetTier4&cid=1163010421830. Available as of April 4, 2018.

Hip/Knee Arthroplasty Complication Measure Methodology: Jaymie Simoes, Jacqueline N. Grady, Jo DeBuhr, et al. 2018 Procedure-Specific Measure Updates and Specifications Report Hospital-Level Risk-Standardized Complication Measure: Elective Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) and/or Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) – Version 6.0. https://www.qualitynet.org/dcs/ContentServer?c=Page&pagename=QnetPublic%2FPage%2FQnetTier4&cid=1228772782693. Available as of April 4, 2018.

AMI, Heart Failure, and Pneumonia Payment Measures Methodology: Jaymie Simoes, Jacqueline N. Grady, Jo DeBuhr, et al. 2018 Measure Updates and Specifications Report Hospital-Level Risk-Standardized Payment Measures: Acute Myocardial Infarction – Version 6.0 Heart Failure – Version 4.0 Pneumonia – Version 4.0 Elective Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) and/or Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) – Version 3.0. https://www.qualitynet.org/dcs/ContentServer?c=Page&pagename=QnetPublic%2FPage%2FQnetTier4&cid=1228774267858. Available as of April 4, 2018.

American Hospital Association (AHA) Annual Survey Database. Fiscal Year 2014. http://www.ahadataviewer.com/book-cd-products/aha-survey/.  Accessed March 2, 2016.

National Quality Forum. Risk Adjustment for Socioeconomic Status or Other Sociodemographic Factors, Technical Report. August 15, 2014; http://www.qualityforum.org/Publications/2014/08/Risk_Adjustment_for_Socioeconomic_Status_or_Other_Sociodemographic_Factors.aspx. Accessed 26 July 2016.

AHRQ Indicator Methodology: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, AHRQ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality archive;
Publication # 08-0029-EF, Chapter 3: Creation of New Race-Ethnicity Codes and SES Indicators for Medicare Beneficiaries - Chapter 3: Creating and Validating and Index of Socioeconomic Status; http://archive.ahrq.gov/research/findings/final-reports/medicareindicators/medicareindicators3.html . Accessed 30 June 2015.

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